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Ananas
Ananas

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Ananas comosus, pineapple

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Taxonomy

cellular organisms - Eukaryota - Viridiplantae - Streptophyta - Streptophytina - Embryophyta - Tracheophyta - Euphyllophyta - Spermatophyta - Magnoliophyta - Liliopsida - commelinids - Poales - Bromeliaceae - Ananas -
Wild pineapples
Ananas ananassoides
Ananas bracteatus (red pineapple)
Ananas fritzmuelleri
Ananas nanus
Cultivated pineapple
Ananas comosus

Brief facts

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Vegetative shoots used for pineapple propagation

Vegetative parts of ananas used for propagation

Ananas plant with sucker

Pineapple plant with ground sucker (ratoon) on the left.

Ananas plant with slip

Pineapple plant with slip at the base of the fruit.

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Growth stages (life cycle)

Life Cycle Stages

Pineapple plant is biennial. Seeds are used only for breeding. They are difficult and slow to germinate (emergence takes up to 2 months and 4-leaf seedling takes up to 3 months to grow). Pineapple is easily propagated by vegetative shoots. Usually a four year crop cycle: a plant crop and one ratoon crop, with 6–9 months for land preparation.

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Fruit phyllotaxy and Fibonacci numbers

Phyllotaxy (from Greek phyllon, leaf and taxis, arrangement) is the mode in which leaves are arranged with regards to the axis of the main stem. In nature leaves or florets are arranged in a spiral.

One of principal methods of expression of this arrangement gives the ratio between the number of spiral's turns about the plant axis and the number of leaves (or florets in case of inflorescence) in the spiral when it makes full circle around the stem. These ratios generally belong to the so-called Fibonacci summation series, 1/2, 1/3, 2/5, 3/8, 5/13, 8/21, etc., in which each value of the numerator and denominator is the sum of the two corresponding values that precede it.

Phyllotaxy 8/21 was reported for Cayenne pineapple. Below is presented Del Monte Gold pineapple, which phylotaxy was determined to be 8/13.

Pineapple fruit phyllotaxy

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Ananas comosus, pineapple frut Ananas comosus, pineapple longitudinal section
Ananas comosus, pineapple traverse section Ananas comosus, pineapple fruitlets
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References

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