Please help keeping these websites open for everybody as long as possible
Canis familiaris, dog phenotypes
Shearin AL, Ostrander EA. Canine morphology: hunting for genes and tracking mutations. PLoS Biol. 2010 Mar 2;8(3):e1000310.
Morphological variations in dogs. Dog breeds display extremes of morphological variation including body size and proportion, head size and shape, coat texture, color, and patterning. Clockwise from the left: the Bloodhound, the Chinese-crested, the Dandie Dinmont terrier, the Scottish deerhound, the long-haired Chihuahua, and the French bulldog. (Image: Mary Bloom, American Kennel Club).
Size variation in the dog.
Variation in skeletal morphology in the dog is a complex phenotype, with IGF-1 as a major determinant of small size. The difference in overall body size between a Cane Corso and a Yorkshire terrier is over 30-fold, yet both are members of the same species, Canis familiaris.
Coat variation in the dog.
Coat texture and length are features that distinguish between breeds and between varieties of the same breed. Clockwise from the left are shown the Vizsla with a short, straight coat. These dogs and others like them have wild-type alleles for the three critical genes controlling coat texture, length, and curl, which are RSPO-2, FGF5, and KRT71, respectively. The giant Schnauzer displays the eyebrows and moustache characteristic of the trait called “furnishings” and carries the variant form of RSPO-2. Dogs with furnishings usually exhibit wiry coats as well. The Cocker spaniel has long straight hair, demonstrating the variant form of FGF5, but wild-type alleles at other loci. The Bichon frise has variant alleles at all three critical loci, RSPO-2, FGF5, and KRT71, and displays a coat that is long, curly, and with furnishings. (Image: Giant schnauzer and Bichon frise pictures provided by Mary Bloom, American Kennel Club.)
Philipp U et al. Polymorphisms within the canine MLPH gene are associated with dilute coat color in dogs. BMC Genet. 2005 Jun 16;6:34.
Blue Doberman Pinscher und black-and-tan Doberman Pinscher. Blue Doberman Pinscher (A) and black-and-tan Doberman Pinscher (B). Note the coat color differences between the two animals. The black and reddish fur parts of the black-and-tan Doberman Pinscher are changed to paler coloring in the blue dog. Classical genetics states that the blue dog is homozygous for the recessive dilute allele (d).
Hédan B et al. Coat colour in dogs: identification of the merle locus in the Australian shepherd breed. BMC Vet Res. 2006 Feb 27;2:9.
Pictures of none merle and merle dogs and mice microphthalmia mutants.
A: Black and tan Australian Shepherd dog.
B: Heterozygous merle Australian shepherd dog (pictures from Elevage du Paradis Sauvage de Ménestruel, Poncin, France).
C: Six-month homozygous merle collie: the coat colour is totally white and the dog is blind and deaf.
D: The left eye of the same dog, shows a microphthalmia with microcornea and a cataract (pictures from Dr Gilles Chaudieu, DVM, Dip. ECVO, Chamalières, France).
E: Mitfmi-sp/Mitfmi-vga9 mouse.
F: Mitfmi-vga9/Mitfmi-vga9 mouse with severe microphthalmia (pictures from Steingrímsson).
Voorbij AM et al. A contracted DNA repeat in LHX3 intron 5 is associated with aberrant splicing and pituitary dwarfism in German shepherd dogs. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e27940.
Two fourteen-month-old male German shepherd dogs from the same litter.
A healthy German shepherd dog (C8, left) and his littermate that is affected by pituitary dwarfism (C6, right). Note the proportionate growth retardation, the retention of puppy hairs and the lack of guard hairs of the dwarf.
Frischknecht M1, Niehof-Oellers H, Jagannathan V, Owczarek-Lipska M, Drögemüller C, Dietschi E, Dolf G, Tellhelm B, Lang J, Tiira K, Lohi H, Leeb T.
A COL11A2 Mutation in Labrador Retrievers with Mild Disproportionate Dwarfism. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e60149.
Phenotype of the inherited disproportionate dwarfism.
(A) Photograph of a female affected Labrador Retriever. Notice the relatively long body in relation to the length of the legs. (B) Affected mother (left) with her non-affected daughter (right). The affected dog has shorter forelegs. (C) Photograph of three littermates. The affected male has short legs and different proportions compared to his non-affected sister. (D) Radiograph of the left front limb of a male control Labrador Retriever and (E) his affected full brother at 12 months of age. In the affected dog ulna and radius are 2.7 cm and 1.9 cm shorter and slightly more bent than in the control, respectively. The diameter of the diaphysis of the long bones is not affected.
Olsson M, Meadows JR, Truvé K, Rosengren Pielberg G, Puppo F, Mauceli E, Quilez J, Tonomura N, Zanna G, Docampo MJ, Bassols A, Avery AC, Karlsson EK, Thomas A, Kastner DL, Bongcam-Rudloff E,
Webster MT, Sanchez A, Hedhammar A, Remmers EF, Andersson L, Ferrer L, Tintle L, Lindblad-Toh K.
A Novel Unstable Duplication Upstream of HAS2 Predisposes to a Breed-Defining Skin Phenotype and a Periodic Fever Syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei Dogs. PLoS Genet. Mar 2011; 7(3): e1001332.
The phenotypic spectrum of the Chinese Shar-Pei.
Following strong selection for the “wrinkled” skin phenotype, Shar-Pei dogs in the western world most commonly present as the meatmouth type (A–C). The traditional type of Shar-Pei (D) is the ancestral version and is still common in China. The characteristic skin is a result of a deposition of mucin, mainly hyaluronic acid (HA), in the upper dermis of the skin. The deposit collects in certain areas of Shar-Pei skin and often as “socks” around the hocks (E). The meatmouth Shar-Pei (A–C) is also predisposed to a breed-specific periodic fever syndrome called Familial Shar-Pei Fever (FSF).
Schoenebeck JJ, Hutchinson SA, Byers A, Beale HC, Carrington B, Faden DL, Rimbault M, Decker B, Kidd JM, Sood R, Boyko AR, Fondon JW 3rd, Wayne RK, Bustamante CD, Ciruna B, Ostrander EA.
Variation of BMP3 Contributes to Dog Breed Skull Diversity. PLoS Genet. Aug 2012; 8(8): e1002849.
Quantitative and qualitative assessments of PC1 on canine cranioskeletal shape.
(A) Gray wolf (mesocephalic, ancestor to dogs) (B) Afghan hound (dolichocephalic), (C) Leonberger (mesocephalic), (D) Pug (brachycephalic).
Baranowska Körberg I, Sundström E, Meadows JR, Rosengren Pielberg G, Gustafson U, Hedhammar Å, Karlsson EK, Seddon J, Söderberg A, Vilà C, Zhang X, Åkesson M, Lindblad-Toh K, Andersson G, Andersson L.
A Simple Repeat Polymorphism in the MITF-M Promoter Is a Key Regulator of White Spotting in Dogs. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8): e104363.
Overview of the different phenotypes included in the study.
(A) Solid (S/S) Bull terrier, (B) white Bull terrier (sw/sw), (C) flash (S/sw) Bull terrier, (D) Irish spotting (si/si) in a Bernese Mountain Dog, (E) piebald (sp/sp) Beagle, (F) wolf. Drawings: Anders Sundström.
Various products with this design are available at GeoChemBio store
- Dog reproductive cycle (mating, estrous cycle)
- Dog development (from fertilization to adult)
- Dog taxonomy (full taxonomy of Canidae)
- Canine behavior (life with humans)
- Dog-to-dog communication (canine language illustrated)
- Dog phenotypes (genetics illustrated)
- Bibiography (research articles and reviews)