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Halyomorpha halys, brown-marmorated stink bug, adult
Halyomorpha halys, brown-marmorated stink bug, adult

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Halyomorpha halys, brown marmorated stink bug

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Taxonomy

Taxonomic lineage

cellular organisms - Eukaryota - Fungi/Metazoa group - Metazoa - Eumetazoa - Bilateria - Coelomata - Protostomia - Panarthropoda - Arthropoda - Mandibulata - Pancrustacea - Hexapoda - Insecta - Dicondylia - Pterygota - Neoptera - Paraneoptera - Hemiptera - Euhemiptera - Neohemiptera - Prosorrhyncha - Heteroptera - Euheteroptera - Neoheteroptera - Panheteroptera - Pentatomomorpha - Pentatomoidea - Pentatomidae - Pentatominae - Halyomorpha - Halyomorpha halys

Taxonomy

Common name of Halyomorpha halys is brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB).

Stink bugs belong to the group of winged insects (Pterygota ). More narrowly, they belong to infraclass Paraneoptera, which comprises the orders Thysanoptera (thrips), Hemiptera (bugs), Phthiraptera (lice) and Psocoptera (booklice and barklice). Stink bugs are classified into order Hemiptera. Hemipterans are characterized by incomplete metamorphosis (hatchlings or nymphs are similar to adults) and are able to fold their wings back. Forewings are usually hardened near the base, but membranous at the ends. Another defining feature of hemipterans is their mouthparts with the mandibles and maxillae modified into a proboscis, which is capable of piercing and sucking (sap or blood).

Further down the taxonomic hierarchy, stink bugs turn up in the group Heteroptera, which again are collectively called true bugs or, simply, bugs. The name Heteroptera (Greek for "different wings") refers to the forewings with both membranous and hardened portions. Heteroptera contains such medically important families as Cimicidae (bedbugs) and Reduviidae (assassin and kissing bugs).

Cimex lectularius, bedbug: facts, life cycle at MetaPathogen

Triatominae, kissing bugs, vectors of Chagas disease at MetaPathogen

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) belongs to stink bug family Pentatomidae. Family Pentatomidae (from Greek pente - five and tomos - section) includes some of the stink bugs and shield bugs. Their antennae are 5-segmented, which gives the family its scientific name. Their bodies are shield-like pentagon-shaped. Common name stink bug refers to ability of these bugs to eject foul-smelled liquid as a very effective antipredator adaptation. The scent glands are located on the dorsal surface of the abdomen and the underside of the thorax.

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Brief facts

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Developmental stages (life cycle)

H. halys is univoltine in New Jersey and Pennsylvania with a peak in the population in late July or early August, but if it spreads to warmer climates in the United States, it could have multiple generations per year. In southern China up to six generations occur each year. However, other environmental factors such as photoperiod length also determine the number of generations per year with short photoperiod causing physiological changes in preparation to diapause. Total developmental time (from egg to adult) was determined to be approx. 81 days at 20 C° and 33 days at 30 C° under controlled laboratory conditions. Although development at 27-30 C° was the shortest, mortality was almost 50% - 10% higher than in the 20-25 C° range, which can be considered optimal. At 17 C° and 33 C°, development also occurred but mortality was more than 90%. Because females lay eggs continuously, stink bugs on various stages of development are usually observed in first half of the summer.

Youtube video of the agile stink bug
(if you don't see it below)

Youtube video of stink bug's nymph running for its life
(if you don't see it below)

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Stinkbug T-shirts and other products are vailable at GeoChemBio shop

Stink bug dark T-shirt Stink bug green T-shirt Stink bug hat

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Methods of control

Biological control

The species of stink bug does not have any natural predators. Several studies were conducted to determine potential of local and introduced organisms as well as various chemical and mechanical methods to keep the stink bug population in check. In its native range, the bug is attracted to the aggregation pheromone of the brown-winged stink bug, Plautia stali. In North America, Thyanta spp. such as the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta pallidovirens (Stål), are the only pentatomid known to produce methyl 2,4,6,-decatrienoate as part of their pheromones. The pheromones of one species that modify behavior of other species are called kairomones. Some pentatomids exploit the pheromones of other true bugs as kairomones to find food or to congregate as a passive defense against parasitism. The first captures of adult and nymph BMSBs in traps baited with this substance were reported. In addition, this pheromone is also used by tachinid parasitoid fly, Euclytia flava, to locate the bugs aggregations and parasitize one their eggs. The hypothesis is that host species newly associated with a parasitoid are maladapted relative to native-native associations was tested by giving E. flava females a choice between native and exotic stink bugs. Female flies preferred to oviposit on exotic pentatomid species rather than indigenous, known host species, both in field traps baited with the pheromone of a native host and in the laboratory.
In northern China, a newly described species, Trissolcus halymorphae (parasitoid wasp) is an egg parasitoid that has been identified as the primary biological control (with 50% mortality rate for BMSB) agent responsible for the management of BMSB. T. halymorphae is currently not known to occur in the U.S.

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Chemical control

Pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin.

Organophosphates: malathion, dicrotophos, acephate, methyl parathion.

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H. halis predicted invasion potential

Gengping Zhu, Wenjun Bu, Yubao Gao, and Guoqing Liu Potential Geographic Distribution of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Invasion (Halyomorpha halys) PLoS One. 2012; 7(2): e31246.

Halyomorpha halis invasion potential

Niche model based on reduced native records and transferred worldwide using Maxent.

Dark green color represents high suitability, light green indicates low suitability. White circles indicate the 95 occurrences used for model calibration, black dots and white squares represent the remaining native and invasive records used for model evaluation.

Outside of native-range areas, high suitable climate space identified by both modeling algorithms include the northeastern areas along the Pacific coast and east central states in the US in North America. Elsewhere include Uruguay and areas in southern Brazil and northern Argentina in South America, and areas around the Black Sea and the areas west to its same latitudinal range in Europe. Maxent also identified northern Europe as suitable. Northern Angola and adjacent areas of Congo and Zambia in Africa, the southeastern and southwestern Australia, and much of New Zealand also showed high climate suitability. All the areas mentioned above should pay attention to quarantine and inspection when engaging in interchanges with East Asia.

Photo gallery

Halyomorpha halis, marmorated stink bug

 

Halyomorpha halis, marmorated stink bug

 

Halyomorpha halis, marmorated stink bug

 

Halyomorpha halis, marmorated stink bug

Halyomorpha halis, marmorated stink bug

Halyomorpha halis, marmorated stink bug

 

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References

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