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Common name of Halyomorpha halys is brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB).
Stink bugs belong to the group of winged insects (Pterygota ). More narrowly, they belong to infraclass Paraneoptera, which comprises the orders Thysanoptera (thrips), Hemiptera (bugs), Phthiraptera (lice) and Psocoptera (booklice and barklice). Stink bugs are classified into order Hemiptera. Hemipterans are characterized by incomplete metamorphosis (hatchlings or nymphs are similar to adults) and are able to fold their wings back. Forewings are usually hardened near the base, but membranous at the ends. Another defining feature of hemipterans is their mouthparts with the mandibles and maxillae modified into a proboscis, which is capable of piercing and sucking (sap or blood).
Further down the taxonomic hierarchy, stink bugs turn up in the group Heteroptera, which again are collectively called true bugs or, simply, bugs. The name Heteroptera (Greek for "different wings") refers to the forewings with both membranous and hardened portions. Heteroptera contains such medically important families as Cimicidae (bedbugs) and Reduviidae (assassin and kissing bugs).
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) belongs to stink bug family Pentatomidae. Family Pentatomidae (from Greek pente - five and tomos - section) includes some of the stink bugs and shield bugs. Their antennae are 5-segmented, which gives the family its scientific name. Their bodies are shield-like pentagon-shaped. Common name stink bug refers to ability of these bugs to eject foul-smelled liquid as a very effective antipredator adaptation. The scent glands are located on the dorsal surface of the abdomen and the underside of the thorax.
Invasive speciesThe brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys Stål is native to eastern Asia. Its range includes subtropical regions of China and India. In Eastern United States, it was first officially reported in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 2001, however, most likely breeding population has been established as early as in late 90s. The exotic species were rapidly spreading and since then, the bug has been found in the states of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Oregon. Although initially in the U.S. it has been primarily reported as a household nuisance and ornamental pest, this stink bug has a potential to become a major agricultural pest in North America. In fall of 2010, various newspapers and internet media reported that population of this stink bug in Maryland reached critical levels and it is about to be re-classified as an important agricultural pest which requires special funding for research and major extermination measures.
Some researchers predict that a rise in winter temperature by only 1 C° can significantly reduce mortality of overwintering bugs and, therefore, lead to a great increase in their reproduction if global warming continues.
In U.S., H. halys is able to survive colder winter temperatures than the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula.
AppearanceAdult stink bug has mottled brown ("marmorated") shield-shaped body 12 to 17 mm long (approximately 1/2 inch). It has characteristic alternating dark and light bands across the last two antennal segments that appear as a single white band in both nymphs and adults. This is the most distinguishing characteristic in the field. Example species that could be confused with the brown marmorated stink bug include the brown stink bug (Euschitus servus) and the green stink bug (Acrosternum hilare).
Feeding and importance as a pestSimilar to a native southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), BMSB is a polyphagous insect and feeds on a wide range of host plants (>300 species). In order to obtain the nutrients of the liquid part of the fruit, stink bugs use their piercing-sucking mouthparts in a straw-like fashion. In Japan it attacks shade and fruit trees, vegetables, and leguminous crops such as soybean. In southern China, it feeds on flowers, stems and pods of various legumes and ornamental plants. stink bugs damage apple, cherry, citrus, pear, peach, persimmon and other juicy fruits as well as mulberry and raspberry. They can feed not only on fruit but also on young leaves leaving circular necrotic spots on fruit and leaf surfaces that can result in secondary infections and scarring or even abortion of the developing fruit. Affected apples often exhibit pitting and discoloration symptoms and peaches frequently display a characteristic distortion referred to as "cat facing". Even if a fruit, it may not be suitable for market. Direct feeding damage, the BMSB is also known to potentially vector or spread a witch's broom phytoplasm in princess tree, Paulownia tomentosa, in Asia. Incidences of vector transmission of BMSB in the U.S. have not been reported.
Apart of being agricultural pests, rapidly reproducing stink bugs became a major nuisance in residential homes and commercial businesses especially in fall, when they aggregate and walk into homes and crawl under siding seeking places to spend winter.
SurvivalFor three species of stink bug (brown, Euschistus servus; green, Acrosternum hilare; southern green, Nezara viridula) it was determined that not hibernating adults can survive for up to 48 hours without food or water.
H. halys is univoltine in New Jersey and Pennsylvania with a peak in the population in late July or early August, but if it spreads to warmer climates in the United States, it could have multiple generations per year. In southern China up to six generations occur each year. However, other environmental factors such as photoperiod length also determine the number of generations per year with short photoperiod causing physiological changes in preparation to diapause. Total developmental time (from egg to adult) was determined to be approx. 81 days at 20 C° and 33 days at 30 C° under controlled laboratory conditions. Although development at 27-30 C° was the shortest, mortality was almost 50% - 10% higher than in the 20-25 C° range, which can be considered optimal. At 17 C° and 33 C°, development also occurred but mortality was more than 90%. Because females lay eggs continuously, stink bugs on various stages of development are usually observed in first half of the summer.
- Egg The adults emerged from the winter hibernation (spring adults) mate in the spring approximately two weeks (preoviposition period) after emerging from diapause or the resting phase. In Pennsylvania, eggs first appeared in late June. At 25 C° a median number of eggs is 28 per egg mass. White or pale green barrel-shaped, about 1 mm in diameter eggs are laid in clusters on the undersides of leaves. Oviposition occurs at approximately weekly intervals (at 4.3 days intervals under laboratory conditions) throughout the season. Each female can lay up 400 eggs (250 eggs on average) in her lifetime. Egg development does not proceed at temperatures lower than 15 C° and higher than 35 C°. Embryonic development takes ~11.5 and ~3 days at 20 C° and 30 C°, respectively.
As with all immature stink bugs, the nymphs lack fully developed wings
and have been described as tick-like in appearance, ranging in size from 2.4 mm
(1st instar) to 12 mm (5th instar).
Nymphs molt (shed their exoskeleton)
as they progress through five different stages or nymphal instars.
Each subsequent instar (3rd, 4th, and 5th)
look more and more like adult BMSB in shape and coloration.
Nymphs are solitary but aggregate occasionally between
overlapping leaves or leaf folds.
Rate of development on each nymphal each stage depends on temperature.
- 1st instar The 1st instars measure about 2.4 mm in size and are colored orange or red. They remain clustered around the egg mass for several days, sometimes until they molt to the 2nd instars. Aggregation of first instars is important for the stink bug survival. It was suggested that the pentatomid first instars increase humidity regulation, feed on the egg chorion and acquire important symbionts during the aggregation. This stage takes 9-10 days at 20 C° and ~4 days at 30 C°.
- 2nd instar The 2nd instars are bigger and develop adult-like coloration. This stage takes 16-17 days at 20 C° and ~7 days at 30 C°.
- 3rd instar This stage takes 11-12 days at 20 C° and ~6 days at 30 C°.
- 4th instar This stage takes 13-14 days at 20 C° and ~6 days at 30 C°.
- 5th instar This stage takes 20-21 days at 20 C° and ~8-9 days at 30 C°.
Adults are sexually mature two weeks
after their final molt.
Adults are 12 to 17 mm long (approximately 1/2 inch), and have a mottled
appearance. Alternating dark and light bands occur on the last two antennal segment.
lateral margins of the abdomen are marked with alternate bands of brown and white.
Faint white bands are also evident on the legs.
Late in the season (in September and early October), adults (fall adults)
start to seek sheltered sites to
the several weeks of peak flight, many insects can enter residential homes through any small
opening, mostly around windows.
Youtube video of the agile stink bug
(if you don't see it below)
Youtube video of stink bug's nymph running for its life
(if you don't see it below)
Stinkbug T-shirts and other products are vailable at GeoChemBio shop
The species of stink bug does not have any natural predators. Several studies were
conducted to determine potential of local and introduced organisms as well as various
chemical and mechanical methods to keep the stink bug population in check.
In its native range, the bug is attracted to the aggregation pheromone
of the brown-winged stink bug, Plautia stali. In North
America, Thyanta spp. such as the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta pallidovirens
(Stål), are the only pentatomid known to produce methyl 2,4,6,-decatrienoate
as part of their pheromones.
The pheromones of one species that modify behavior of other species are called
kairomones. Some pentatomids exploit the pheromones of other true bugs as
kairomones to find food or to congregate as a passive defense against parasitism.
The first captures of adult and nymph BMSBs in traps
baited with this substance were reported. In addition, this pheromone is also used
by tachinid parasitoid fly, Euclytia flava, to locate the bugs aggregations
and parasitize one their eggs. The hypothesis is that host species newly associated
with a parasitoid are maladapted relative to native-native associations was tested
by giving E. flava females a choice between native and exotic stink bugs.
Female flies preferred to oviposit on exotic pentatomid species
rather than indigenous, known host species, both in field traps baited with the
pheromone of a native host and in the laboratory.
In northern China, a newly described species, Trissolcus halymorphae (parasitoid wasp) is an egg parasitoid that has been identified as the primary biological control (with 50% mortality rate for BMSB) agent responsible for the management of BMSB. T. halymorphae is currently not known to occur in the U.S.
Pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin.
Organophosphates: malathion, dicrotophos, acephate, methyl parathion.
H. halis predicted invasion potential
Gengping Zhu, Wenjun Bu, Yubao Gao, and Guoqing Liu Potential Geographic Distribution of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Invasion (Halyomorpha halys) PLoS One. 2012; 7(2): e31246.
Niche model based on reduced native records and transferred worldwide using Maxent.
Dark green color represents high suitability, light green indicates low suitability. White circles indicate the 95 occurrences used for model calibration, black dots and white squares represent the remaining native and invasive records used for model evaluation.
Outside of native-range areas, high suitable climate space identified by both modeling algorithms include the northeastern areas along the Pacific coast and east central states in the US in North America. Elsewhere include Uruguay and areas in southern Brazil and northern Argentina in South America, and areas around the Black Sea and the areas west to its same latitudinal range in Europe. Maxent also identified northern Europe as suitable. Northern Angola and adjacent areas of Congo and Zambia in Africa, the southeastern and southwestern Australia, and much of New Zealand also showed high climate suitability. All the areas mentioned above should pay attention to quarantine and inspection when engaging in interchanges with East Asia.
- FUNAYAMA KEN (Akita Fruit-tree Experiment Station, Yokote, Jpn). Importance of apple fruits as food for the brown-marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Appl Entomol Zool. 39 (4): 617-623 (2004)
- Niva CC and Takeda M. Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Melatonin on Nymphal Development, Polyphenism and Reproduction in Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Zoological Science 20(8):963-970. 2003.
- FUNAYAMA KEN (Akita Fruit-tree Experiment Station, Yokote, Jpn). A new rearing method using carrots as food for the brown-marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Appl Entomol Zool. 41 (3): 415-418 (2006)
- Gyeltshen J, Bernon G, and Hodges A. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). (.pdf)
- Aldrich1 JR, Khrimian1 A, Chen X and Camp MJ. Semiochemically Based Monitoring of the Invasion of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug and Unexpected Attraction of the Native Green Stink Bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Maryland. Florida Entomologist 92(3):483-491. 2009.
- KIRITANI K. The impact of global warming and land-use change on the pest status of rice and fruit bugs (Heteroptera) in Japan. Global Change Biology, Vol. 13, No 8, August 2007 , pp. 1586-1595(10)
- Aldrich JR, Khrimian A, Camp MJ. Methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates attract Stink bugs and tachinid parasitoids. J Chem Ecol. 2007 Apr;33(4):801-15.
- Adachi I, Uchino K and Mochizuki F. Development of a pyramidal trap for monitoring fruit-piercing stink bugs baited with Plautia crossota stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) aggregation pheromone. Appl Entomol Zool. 42(3): 425-431 (2007).
- Yang Z-Q, Yao Y-X, Qiu L-F, and Li Z-X. A New Species of Trissolcus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) Parasitizing Eggs of Halyomorpha Halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in China with Comments on its Biology. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102(1):39-47. 2009.
- Nielsen AL, Hamilton GC. Seasonal occurrence and impact of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in tree fruit. J Econ Entomol. 2009 Jun;102(3):1133-40.
- SNODGRASS GL, ADAMCZYK JJ JR., AND GORE J. Toxicity of Insecticides in a Glass-Vial Bioassay to Adult Brown, Green, and Southern Green Stink Bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. February 1, 2005. (.pdf)
- Aldrich JR. Testing the "new associations" biological control concept with a tachinid parasitoid (Euclytia flava) J. of Chem. Ecol. Vol. 21, No 7, 1031-1042
- Nielsen AL, Hamilton GC, Matadha D. Developmental rate estimation and life table analysis for Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Environ Entomol. 2008 Apr;37(2):348-55. (.pdf)
- KHRIMIAN A, SHEARER PW, ZHANG A, HAMILTON GC, AND ALDRICH JR. Field Trapping of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys, with Geometric Isomers of Methyl 2,4,6-Decatrienoate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 197–203. (.pdf)